Wednesday, 14 October 2015


Ultra-violet spectroscopy/Spectrometry

Ultraviolet/Visible absorption spectroscopy is a measurement of attenuated beam of light after passing through a sample or after reflecting from a sample surface. 

Basic Principle: Valence shell electronic transition

Application of UV-Spectroscopy:
  1. Detection of functional group.
  2. Detection of impurities.
  3. Qualitative analysis and Quantitative analysis.
  4. Single compound without chromophore.
  5. Identify drugs with chromophoric reagent.
  6. To identify the conjugated compounds.
Instrumentation of UV-Spectroscopy:

A wavelength selector that uses diffraction grating or prism and allows continuous variation of nominal wavelength.

A wavelength selector that uses either absorption and destructive interference to control range of selected wavelength.
Absorption filter: Narrow effective bandwidth 30 to 250 nm and maximum throughput 10%
Interference filter: Narrow effective bandwidth 10 to 20 nm and maximum throughput 40%  

Stray light:
Stray light is a light in a optical system, which not intended in the design of instrument/spectroscopy.
In short, it is a unwanted light present in the optical system.
This problem is overcome by using double monochromators in the instrumentation.

Chromophore is part of a molecule or a structure, which is responsible for colour of the molecule or compound. The colour is obtained by absorbing one of the visible wavelength and reflecting back the remaining ones.

An auxochrome is a functional group of atoms attached to the chromophore which modifies the ability of the chromophore to absorb light, altering the wavelength or intensity of the absorption.

List of detectors and principle: 
Pt strip in evacuated vessel
Resistance change
Thermocouple and Thermophile
Two dissimilar metals.
Ex: Bismuth and Antimony
Voltage or EMF change at junction
Goley Cell
Xenon gas
Membrane displacement or expansion of gas
Triglycerine sulphate used as a medium
Electric polarization producing current.
Oxide of Co, Mg, Ni
Resistance change

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Tuesday, 30 December 2014

Classification of Drugs acting on central and peripheral nervous system


Anti-psychotics are used in used different clinical diseases such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder,bipolar disorder, psychotic disorder, insomnia, dementia.

  • Classification based on Generations (1st, 2nd)

  • Classification based on typical and atypical type of anti-psychotic:

Mechanism of anti-psychotic Drugs:

  • General mechanism:

  • Some important mechanism of anti-psychotic drugs :

    Monday, 1 December 2014


    Calcium oxalate crystals shape and examples of sources:

    Type of Calcium oxalate crystals
    Prism/Single crystals
    Quillaia bark, liquorice, quassia wood, hyocyamus, clove stalk, senna, cascara, rauwolfia, kurchi, coca
    Cluster Crystals
    Senna leaf, Stramonium leaf, rhubarb, clove, wild cherry bark
    Rosette crystals
    Rhubarb, umbelliferous fruits(coriander, fennel, anise, celery)
    Acicular Crystals/ Raphides
    Single Acicular – Gentian root, cinnamon bark, gentian
    Bundle of acicular – squill , ipecac root
    Micro Crystals/ Crystals sand/ Micro sphenoid
    Cinchona, belladonna leaf
    Digitalis and aloe

    Different shape of  calcium oxalate crystals
    Actual crystals under microscope

    Sunday, 30 November 2014



    Types of tablet:

    A. Immediate release tablets: The tablet is intended to release rapidly after administration, or the tablet is dissolved and administered as solution. 
    Most common types are:
    1. Disintegrating tablets 
    2. Chewable tablets
    3. Effervescent tablet
    4. Sublingual and buccal tablets 
    5. Lozenges
    B.Modified release tablets : They have release features based on, time, course or location and must be swallowed intact.

    Classification of lubricants:

    Insoluble Lubricants
    Stearate(magnesium S., Calcium S., Sodium s.)
    Reduce tablet strength, prolong disintegration, widely used.
    Insoluble but not hydrophobic
    Both lubricant and Binder
    Liquid paraffin
    Up to 5
    Dispersion problem, inferior to stearate.

     List of water soluble lubricants:

    Water soluble lubricants
    Concentration range (%w/w)
    Boric acid
    Sodium benzoate
    Sodium oleate
    Sodium acetate
    Sodium Lauryl sulphate(SLS)
    Magnesium lauryl sulphate (MLS)


    Binders or adhesives are the substances that promote cohesiveness. It is utilized for converting powder into granules through a process known as granulation.

    Classification of binders:

    Natural binders
    Synthetic/Semi-synthetic Polymer
    Methyl cellulose
    Liquid glucose
    Ethyl cellulose

    Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose(HPMC)

    Strach paste
    Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose(HPC)

    Pregelatinised starch
    Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose

    Alginic Acid
    Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone

    Polyethylene glycol(PEG)
    Polyvinyl Alcohols, Poly methacrylates.